* An earlier version of this paper was presented at the 2001 meeting of the American Musicological Society in Atlanta, Georgia. I would like to thank Seth Brodsky for indulging the conversations that started and propelled this project, and Paul Miller for lending his computer skills.
2. Manuel describes postmodern sampling as follows: in most of these cases, the sampled passages function as simulacra to be enjoyed for their very meaninglessness, their obvious artificiality, in a characteristically postmodern exhilaration of surfaces (233).
3. While I have chosen to label Monos music as ambienta label often used by fans and critics in reference to Monothis is not a wholly satisfactory designation. Ambient music does not generally have a continuous beat, and the songs usually last far longer than the traditional 35 minutes. While trip hop perhaps more accurately describes Monos sound, in that most of Monos songs are short and do contain a dance beat more consistent with trip hop, I feel that ambient better describes the musics mood and function. Although downtown and ambient both fall under the label of electronica, I find this to be an exhausted and relatively meaningless umbrella term that can apply to any and all synthesizer-based music.
5. Both Roseberry and Remstein confuse the samples present in Hello Cleveland!
6. The complete Lyotard quote is as follows: I define postmodern as incredulity toward metanarratives. This incredulity is undoubtedly a product of progress in the sciences: but that progress in turn presupposes it. To the obsolescence of the metanarrative apparatus of legitimation corresponds, most notably, the crisis of metaphysical philosophy and of the university institution which in the past relied on it. The narrative function is losing its functors, its great hero, its great dangers, its great voyages, its great goal. It is being dispersed in clouds of narrative language elementsnarrative, but also denotative, prescriptive, descriptive, and so on (xxiv).
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Molineaux, Sam. Martin Virgo of Mono: Recording Formica Blues. 10 November 2001 <http://www.sospubs.co.uk/sos/jun98/articles/mono.html>.
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Roseberry, Craig. Review of Formica Blues, by Mono. 20 April 2001 <http://www.djmixed.com>. (No longer online).
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Taylor, Charles. Mono Tones: The Pleasure of Formica Blues. Boston Phoenix (29 March 1998). 20 April 2001 <http://www.weeklywire.com/ww/03-02-98/boston_music_l.html>. (No longer online).
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Berg, Alban. Lulu Suite. City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra. Cond. Simon Rattle. EMI Records Ltd., 1989.
Berio, Luciano. Sinfonia. Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra. Cond. Riccardo Chailly. London Records, 1990.
Mono. Formica Blues. Echo/Mercury Records, 1997.
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