* The original version of this paper was given at the Toronto 2000: Musical Intersections conference on Thursday, November 2, 2000 as part of a panel on "Cultural Constructions of Time in South Asian Music Cultures." I wish to thank the organizer, Richard Kent Wolf, other participants David Trasoff and George Ruckert, and discussant Lewis Rowell for their comments and contributions to this stimulating debate. I also wish to thank the Social Science & Humanities Research Council of
Canada for an operating grant (#72005981) that helped make it possible for
me to conduct this research.
1. I am aware that there is no universally-accepted version of a for any in tabla or playing. There are stylistic differences between the various performance traditions, and tempo has a prominent role to play in how a is performed. Throughout this paper I will cite what I feel are the most common versions: they should be recognizable to most performers and scholars.
2. I defer here to Harold Powers who recommends the use of "counts" instead of the more commonly-found "beats," since the latter may be more usefully reserved for "metrical pulse". It will become clear that the "beat" does not always correspond precisely to the "count." (Personal communication.)
3. The Bhatkhande Sangit Vidyapith is a prominent affiliating and examining body that also prescribes degree syllabuses and course texts.
4. I am aware that considerable interest in diverse exists in Pakistani Punjab, perhaps because the featured prominently in the recent lineages of tabla players in and around Lahore. Furthermore, Pakistani writers on tabla such as Badr ul-Zaman (1991) have listed dozens of obscure . His sources, I suspect, are mainly Indian, and it could be argued that he is unwittingly assisting with the "Hinduization" of .
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